Adaptasi Padi Sawah (Oryza Sativa L.) terhadap Peningkatan Kelebihan Air sebagai Dampak Pemanasan Global

Putu Shantiawan, Putu Suwardike

Abstract

Abstract. Climate change as a result of global warming creates climate uncertainty (anomaly) in the form of excessive drought (El-Nino) and excessive rain (La Nina) which greatly affects the productivity of rice plants. Under normal conditions. Indonesia's rice production will decline to 65 million tons in 2050. But due to climate change, the decline in rice production can be even more drastic to reach 90 million tons or down by 38 per cent. Rice plants need around 2,500 litres of water to produce 1 kg of grain (rough rice). This water is filled from rainwater and/or irrigation water. La Nina can interfere with the growth and yield of rice plants because the plants suffer damage due to limited air exchange, both in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) which inhibits the process of photosynthesis and plant respiration. The level of growth disturbance and yield of rice due to excess water depends on the tolerance level of the variety, the level of inundation and the length of time of inundation. Physiologically the adaptation of lowland rice plants to excess water is classified as complex. Plants that produce PDC and ADH are more tolerant of inundation. Molecularly, plants that contain the Sub1 gene are more resistant to excess water.

Keywords: flooding, global warming, climate change, rice, food

 

Abstrak. Perubahan iklim (climate change) sebagai dampak pemanasan global menimbulkan ketidakpastian (anomali) iklim berupa kekeringan yang berlebihan (El-Nino) dan hujan yang berlebihan (La Nina) yang sangat berpengaruh terhadap produktivitas tanaman padi. Dalam kondisi normal. produksi padi di Indonesia akan mengalami penurunan hingga 65 juta ton pada tahun 2050. Namun akibat perubahan iklim, penurunan produksi padi dapat lebih derastis hingga mencapai 90 juta ton atau turun hingga 38 persen. Tanaman padi membutuhkan sekitar 2.500 liter air untuk menghasilkan 1 kg butir gabah (rough rice). Air ini dipenuhi dari air hujan dan/atau air irigasi. La Nina dapat mengganggu pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman padi karena tanaman mengalami kerusakanakibat terbatasnya pertukaran udara, baik berupa karbondioksida (CO2) maupun oksigen (O2) yang menghambat proses fotosintesis dan respirasi tanaman. Tingkat gangguan pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman padi akibat kelebihan air tergantung pada tingkat toleransi varietas, tingkat genangan dan lama waktu terjadinya genangan.  Secara fisiologis adaptasi tanaman padi sawah terhadap kelebihan air tergolong kompleks. Tanaman yang menghasilkan PDC dan ADH lebih banyak lebih toleran terhadap genangan.  Secara molekuler, tanaman yang mengandung gen Sub1 lebih tahan terhadap kelebihan air.

Katakunci: penggenangan, pemanasan global, perubahan iklim, padi, pangan

Keywords

flooding; global warming; climate change; rice; food

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