Farmers’ Varietal Perception towards Improved Bread Wheat Technologies in Ethiopia: an Implication for Bread Wheat Technology Development

Negussie Muluneh Siyum, Almaz Giziew, Atrsaw Anteneh, Jhon Hardy Purba, Habtamu Mossie, Emam Adem


This study was proposed to analyze farmers’ varietal perception of bread wheat. From Meket district, four kebeles were randomly selected to achieve the above objective. The study uses cross-sectional data collected from randomly selected 214 farming households through an interview schedule. Fourteen Likert items were included in two categories as advantages and disadvantages of the technology.  Five-point Likert scale was used to analyze varietal perceptions. One-way ANOVA was employed for testing the overall mean differences among bread wheat technology adoption categories. In addition, the Relative Importance Index (RII) was used to analyze item relative importance. Farmers supported improved bread wheat varieties for specific attributes such as, high marketability, early maturity, better grain yield, grain color, food quality, and storability were found to be taking the average score of 4.43, 4.43, 4.33, 4.01, 3.85, 3.45, and 3.26, respectively. Whereas, improved bread wheat varieties were perceived to be unsuitable for shattering problems, straw quality, and low yield performances in poor soil types. Therefore, breeding objectives should be oriented towards improving bread wheat variety traits related to shattering and straw quality. Limitation of labor is one of the major reasons for the low adoption rate of row planting. Hence, machinery should be carried out to promote row planting of bread wheat. Moreover, the study indicates the need to entertain farmers’ perception of bread wheat technologies for creating wider adoption. 


Bread wheat; Likert scale; Meket; perception

Full Text:



Alemitu Mulugeta. 2011. Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Haricot Bean Varieties and Associated Agronomic Practices in Dale Woreda, SNNPRS. MSc Thesis, Hawassa University, Ethiopia. 121 pp.

Almaz Giziew. 2008. Adoption of Chickpea Technology Packages in Ada’a and Akaki Woredas, Eastern Shewa, Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University. 168 pp.

Central Statistical Agency (CSA). 2017. Agricultural Sample Survey: Report on Area and Production of Major Crops. Vol. I. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Chilot Yirga, Moti Jaleta, Ali Mohammad, Bekele Shiferaw, Groote H., Menale Kassie, and Takele Mebratu. 2013. Analysis of Adoption and Diffusion of Improved Wheat Technologies in Ethiopia. A research report. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 61pp.

Israel D. 2012. Determining Sample Size. Second edition. PEOD6. University of Florida. Gainesville. (

Ketema, Mengstu, Kebede, Degefu, 2017. Adoption intensity of inorganic fertilizers in maize production: empirical evidence from smallholder farmers in eastern Ethiopia. J. Agric. Sci. 9 (5), 124–132.

Le, K.N. and Tam, V.W.Y., 2007. A survey on effective assessment methods to enhance student learning. Australasian Journal of Engineering Education, 13(2), pp.13-20.

Meket District Office of Agriculture, 2018. Annual Report of Crop and Livestock Production. unpublished.

Mesfin Fenta. 2017. Adoption of Improved Chickpea Technologies in North Gondar Zone of Ethiopia: The Case of Gondar Zuria. MSc Thesis, University of Gondar, Ethiopia. 117 pp.

Molla, T.D., 2013. The District Stakeholders’ Perception towards Improved Wheat Technologies Delivered to Smallholder Farmers: The Case Study in Chencha District in Gamo Gofa Zone, Ethiopia.

Negese Tamirat, Jemal Abafita & Endeg Tekalegn. 2016. Adoption and Impact of Row Planting of Wheat Crop on Household Livelihood: A Case Study of Duna Woreda in Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia. Unpublished

Njane, P.W., 2007. Determinants of adoption of improved wheat varieties and fertilizer use by smallholder farmers in Njoro and Kieni West, Divisions (Doctoral dissertation, Egerton University).

Ott R. and Longnecker M. 2016. An Introduction to Statistical Methods & Data Analysis. Seventh edition. Boston: Macmillan Publishing Services. Cenveo Publishing Services.

Rogers E.1962. Diffusion of innovations. New York, USA: Free Press of Glencoe, pp.79-134.

Shimeles Hailu. 2013. The Impact of Disaster Risk Management Interventions in Humanitarian Programs On Household Food Security The Case of East Africa, Ethiopia, Amhara Region, and North Wollo Zone. UNOCHA.

Sinafikeh Asrat, Mahmud Yesuf, Carlsson F. and Edilegnaw Wale. 2009. Farmers’ Preferences for Crop Variety Traits: Lessons for on-Farm Conservation and Technology Adoption. Discussion Paper Series EfD DP 09-15. Environment for Development. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 21 pp.

Uaiene R., Arndt C. and Masters W. 2009. Determinants of agricultural technology adoption in Mozambique. Discussion papers 67. National Directorate of Studies and Policy Analysis, Ministry of Planning and Development, Republic of Mozambique.

Warmbrod J. 2014. Reporting and Interpreting Scores Derived from Likert-Type Scales. Journal of Agricultural Education, 55 (5): 30-47.

Warmbrod, J.R., 2014. Reporting and Interpreting Scores Derived from Likert-Type Scales. Journal of Agricultural Education, 55(5), pp.30-47.

Yamane T. 1967. Statistics: An Introductory Analysis. Second edition. Harper and Row. New York, 919.

Zewdie Bishaw and Dawit Alemu. 2017. Farmers’ perceptions on improved bread wheat varieties and formal seed supply in Ethiopia. International Journal of Plant Production, 11 (1):117-130.

Zewdie Bishaw, Struik P. and Van Gastel A. 2010. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management. Journal of New Seeds, 11(4): 281-327.


  • There are currently no refbacks.